Analysis of freshly ejaculated semen is the most important diagnostic test in the initial investigation of male infertility. Semen is a mixture of secretions from several components of the genital tract. The testes contribute only 5% of the semen volume but, naturally, all of the sperm. Few important points to be taken into consideration are
Sperm Function Tests
Even though many of the sperm function tests are of only important in research purpose, the DNA fragmentation assay is said to have gaining importance in recent days. It gives some better assumption regarding the success of ICSI.
Genetic testing is one of the most rapidly expanding areas within the treatment of male infertility. There are three genetic tests that are most commonly used in the infertile male.
Blood tests for FSH,LH and Testosterone are done in cases of decreased or no sperm count to know the functional status of testes. Estimation of thyroid hormones and Prolactin are also being done in such cases.
Testicular biopsy is the procedure by which the samples of testicular tissue retrieved to look for the presence of sperms in cases of Azoospermia. These sperms can later be utilized for ICSI. The procedure can be done as simple by using an aspiration needle or by an open biopsy and the patient need not stay in the hospital overnight. It will be done under a short general anesthesia or local anesthesia. The retrieved sample can be kept freezing for future use
Colour Doppler Scanning
The routine Color Doppler ultrasonography is valuable for diagnosing scrotal abnormalities in infertile men, frequently detecting non-palpable lesions. The possible lesions are Varicocele, Testicular microcalcification, epididymal cysts, Tumours etc.